NEW SEISMIC DATA REFUTES OFFICIAL EXPLANATION
Two unexplained "spikes" in the seismic record from Sept. 11
indicate huge bursts of energy shook the ground beneath the World Trade
Center's twin towers immediately prior to the collapse.
Exclusive to American Free Press
American Free Press
has learned of pools of
"molten steel" found at the base of the collapsed twin towers weeks after the
collapse. Although the energy source for these incredibly hot areas has yet to
be explained, New York seismometers recorded huge bursts of energy,
which caused unexplained seismic "spikes"
at the beginning of each collapse.
These spikes suggest that massive underground
explosions may have literally knocked the towers off their foundations, causing
them to collapse.
In the basements of the collapsed towers, where
the 47 central support columns connected with the bedrock, hot spots of
"literally molten steel" were discovered more than a month after the collapse.
Such persistent and intense residual heat, 70 feet below the surface, in an
oxygen starved environment, could explain how these crucial structural supports
Peter Tully, president of Tully Construction of
Flushing, N.Y., told AFP that he saw pools of "literally molten steel" at the
World Trade Center.
Tully was contracted after the Sept. 11 tragedy to
re move the debris from the site.
Tully called Mark Loizeaux, president of
Controlled Demolition, Inc. (CDI) of Phoenix, Md., for consultation about
removing the debris. CDI calls itself "the innovator and global leader in the
controlled demolition and implosion of structures."
Loizeaux, who cleaned up the bombed Alfred P.
Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, arrived at the WTC site two days
later and wrote the clean-up plan for the entire operation.
AFP asked Loizeaux about the report of molten
steel on the site.
"Yes," he said, "hot spots of molten steel in the
These incredibly hot areas were found "at the
bottoms of the elevator shafts of the main towers, down seven [basement]
levels," Loizeaux said.
The molten steel was found "three, four, and five
weeks later, when the rubble was being removed," Loizeaux said. He said molten
steel was also found at 7 WTC, which collapsed mysteriously
in the late afternoon.
Construction steel has an extremely high melting
point of about 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit.
Asked what could have caused such extreme heat,
Tully said, "Think of the jet fuel."
Loizeaux told AFP that the steel-melting fires
were fueled by "paper, carpet and other combustibles packed down the elevator
shafts by the tower floors as they ‘pancaked' into the basement."
However, some independent investigators dispute
this claim, saying kerosene-based jet fuel, paper, or the other combustibles
normally found in the towers, cannot generate the heat required to melt steel,
especially in an oxygen-poor environment like a deep basement.
Eric Hufschmid, author of a book about the WTC
collapse, Painful Questions,* told AFP that due to the lack of oxygen,
paper and other combustibles packed down at the bottom of elevator shafts would
probably be "a smoky smoldering pile."
Experts disagree that jet-fuel or paper could
generate such heat.
This is impossible, they say, because the maximum temperature
that can be reached by hydrocarbons like jet-fuel burning in air is
1,520 degrees F. Because the WTC fires were fuel rich, as evidenced by the
thick black smoke,
it is argued that they did not reach this upper limit.
The hottest spots at the surface of the rubble,
where abundant oxygen was available, were much cooler than the molten steel
found in the basements.
Five days after the collapse, on Sept. 16, the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) used an Airborne
Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)
to locate and measure the site's hot spots.
Dozens of hot spots were mapped, the hottest being
in the east corner of the South Tower where a temperature of 1,377 degrees F
This is, however, less than half as hot at the
molten steel in the basement.
The foundations of the twin towers were 70 feet deep.
At that level, 47 huge box columns, connected to the bedrock, supported
the entire gravity load of the structures. The steel walls of these lower box
columns were four inches thick.
Videos of the North Tower collapse show its
communication mast falling first, indicating that the central support columns
must have failed at the very beginning of the collapse.
Loizeaux told AFP, "Everything went simultaneously."
"At 10:29 the entire top section of the North
Tower had been severed from the base and began falling down," Hufschmid writes.
"If the first event was the falling of a floor, how did that progress to the
severing of hundreds of columns?"
Asked if the vertical support columns gave way before the connections
between the floors and the columns, Ron Hamburger, a structural engineer
with the FEMA assessment team said, "That's the $64,000 question."
Loizeaux said, "If I were to bring the towers
down, I would put explosives in the basement to get the weight of the building
to help collapse the structure."
Seismographs at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
in Palisades, N.Y., 21 miles north of the WTC, recorded strange seismic
activity on Sept. 11 that has still not been explained.
While the aircraft crashes caused minimal earth shaking,
significant earthquakes with unusual spikes occurred at the beginning
of each collapse.
The Palisades seismic data recorded a 2.1 magnitude earthquake
during the 10-second collapse of the South Tower at 9:59:04 and a 2.3 quake
during the 8-second collapse of the North Tower at 10:28:31.
However, the Palisades seismic record shows that
-- as the collapses began --
a huge seismic "spike" marked the moment the greatest energy went into
the ground. The strongest jolts were all registered at the beginning
of the collapses, well before the falling debris struck the Earth.
These unexplained "spikes" in the seismic data
lend credence to the theory that massive explosions at the base of the towers
caused the collapses.
A "sharp spike of short duration" is how
seismologist Thorne Lay of University of California at Santa Cruz told AFP an
underground nuclear explosion appears on a seismograph.
The two unexplained spikes are more than 20 times the amplitude
of the other seismic waves associated with the collapses and occurred
in the East-West seismic recording as the buildings began to fall.
Experts cannot explain why the seismic waves
peaked before the towers actually hit the ground.
Asked about these spikes, seismologist Arthur Lerner-Lam,
director of Columbia University's Center for Hazards and Risk Research told
AFP, "This is an element of current research and discussion. It is still being
Lerner-Lam told AFP that a 10-fold increase in wave amplitude
indicates a 100-fold increase in energy released. These "short-period
surface waves," reflect "the interaction between the ground and the building
foundation," according to a report from Columbia Earth Institute.
"The seismic effects of the collapses are
comparable to the explosions at a gasoline tank farm near Newark on Jan. 7,
1983," the Palisades Seismology Group reported on Sept. 14, 2001.
One of the seismologists, Won-Young Kim, told AFP
that the Palisades seismographs register daily underground explosions from a
quarry 20 miles away.
These blasts are caused by 80,000 pounds of
ammonium nitrate and cause local earthquakes between Magnitude 1 and 2. Kim
said the 1993 truck-bomb at the WTC did not register on the seismographs
because it was "not coupled" to the ground.
"Only a small fraction of the energy from the collapsing towers
was converted into ground motion," Lerner-Lam said. "The ground shaking
that resulted from the collapse of the towers was extremely small."
Last November, Lerner-Lam said: "During the
collapse, most of the energy of the falling debris was absorbed by the towers
and the neighboring structures, converting them into rubble and dust or causing
other damage—but not causing significant ground shaking."
Evidently, the energy source that shook the ground
beneath the towers was many times more powerful than the total potential energy
released by the falling mass of the towers. The question is: What was that
While steel is often tested for evidence of explosions, despite
numerous eyewitness reports of explosions in the towers, the engineers involved
in the FEMA-sponsored building assessment did no such tests.
Dr. W. Gene Corley, who investigated for the government the cause
of the fire at the Branch Davidian compound in Waco and the Oklahoma City
bombing, headed the FEMA-sponsored engineering assessment
of the WTC collapse.
Corley told AFP that while some tests had been
done on the 80 pieces of steel saved from the site, he said he did not know
about tests that show if an explosion had affected the steel.
"I am not a metallurgist," Corley said.
Much of the structural steel from the WTC was sold to Alan D. Ratner
of Metal Management of Newark, N.J., and the New York-based
company Hugo Neu Schnitzer East.
Ratner, who heads the New Jersey branch of the Chicago-based company,
sold the WTC steel to overseas companies, reportedly selling more than 50,000
tons of steel to a Shanghai steel company known as Baosteel for $120 per ton.
Ratner paid about $70 per ton for the steel.
Other shipments of steel from the WTC went to
India and other Asian ports.
Ratner came to Metal Management after spending years with a metal
trading firm known as SimsMetal based out of Sydney, Australia.
* Painful Questions (Item# 1051, $20, 160 pages, softcover)
Is available from First Amendment Books, 645 Pennsylvania Avenue SE,
Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003. Call 1-888-699-6397 to order by Visa or