Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic:
slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian
where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995,
and was a precursor to the September 11 attacks.
The term can refer to the "airline bombing plot" alone, or that combined with the
"Pope assassination plot" and the "CIA plane crash plot".
The first refers to a plot to destroy 11 airliners on January 21 and 22, 1995,
the second refers to a plan to kill John Paul II on January 15, 1995,
and the third refers a plan to crash a plane into the CIA headquarters in Langley,
Virginia and other buildings. Operation Bojinka was prevented on January 6 and 7, 1995,
but some lessons learned were apparently used by the planners of the September 11 attacks.
This article will cover all three plans.